Saturday, November 20, 2010

Shivaji's Ancestors

Shivaji belonged to the House of the Bhosales .

There are many families in Maharashtra with the surname Bhosale, but not all can trace their lineage to the royal Bhosale family ( later the succesors to the thrones of Satara and Kolhapur) .
Their most famous son was Shivaji raje Bhosale,  also the progenitor of their aristocracy.

One of Shivajis early known ancestors was his great grandfather Babaji Bhosale. He was the headman of the villages Hingane Beradi and Diwalgaon in Pune district (or Poona/ Puna, state Maharashtra…source J.Sarkar). His sustinence mainly depended on his farm fields and his income as the headman of the villages.

Note: As per author historian C.V.Vaidya, Babaji Raje Bhosale was the feudal lord of Pande Pedgaon and the same fief continued for a time in the possession of Maloji. (1596 A. D).

He had two sons: Maloji Bhosale the eldest and Vithoji ,his younger sibling.

Both Maloji and Vithoji had some friction with some locals in their village, and shifted with their entire family to Verul (Ellora in Aurangabad district, state Maharashtra).
The land there wasn’t very conducive for farming and both the brothers had to seek service in the army of Lakhujirao Jadhav.

(Lakhuji Jadhav was a noble in the Nizamshahi army of Ahmednagar. His jagir being Sindkhedraja in present day Buldhana, Maharashtra. He also claimed lineage from the royal family of Yadavas of Devagiri which had ruled Maharashtra before the Mohameddan invasion). 

With their bravery, the brothers rose in ranks in Lakhujis army.

Note : Some derive the Bhosale name from Bhose, a village in the Verul district, where the family first settled and Bhosala, means resident of the Bhose village.Ref. Vaidya 

Then the story goes this way, that in a ‘Holi’(festival of colours) function Lakhujirao praised the handsomeness of the young Shahaji, son of Maloji (from his wife Umabai from the family of Nimbalkars of Phaltan, also serving in the Nizamshahi) and even said in a lighter vein that that the young Shahaji and his little daughter Jijabai would make a fine couple. But these words of Lakhuji were taken too seriously by Maloji rao Bhosale. He proudly pointed out to this incident in public, which irked Lakhujirao Jadhav and his family to no end. An indignant Lakhuji Jadhav promptly dismissed Malojirao from his services, after severely rebuking Maloji, for dreaming that a ‘shiledars’ son can marry a 'sardars' (noble) daughter( a shiledar is just higher in the hierarchy than a common soldier , and one who has his own sword and horse, besides what is given by his master) .
(Author/historian:Vaidya says Lakhuji declined to accept Shahaji as his son in law at the protest of his wife Mhalsabai).

Note: Renowned historian Babasaheb Purandare in his work Shivcharitra mentions that it was Vithoji who arranged the marraige of Shahaji and Jijabai and makes no mention of the above incident between Lakhuji and Maloji. On the contrary he mentions that Maloji and Vithoji were tilling their fields when they came across a treasure which they used in charitable work and raising a small force and then went in the service of the Nizamshahi. After Malojis death in a battle it was Vithoji who raised Shahaji and got him married. By then both the Bhosales and the Jadhavraos were of equal social status and thus the marraige between Shahaji and Jijabai was easily possible.

Humiliated , Maloji retreated to his village in Verul. Maloji meanwhile had become the headman of his village.
Note: Maloji and his brother Vithoji served the Nizamshah with distinction and got many 'mokasas’ for maintenance of forces, as also many villages and lands in Inam. These were as follows:
The three perganas(parganas) of Elur ( Verul ); Derhadi and Kannarad. Kannarad was given with ‘ kot ' and 4 ‘ kila ' or fort and included Jategau and Vakadi. The towns 1. Pedgaon, now in ruins, is eight miles from Shrigonda, on the Bhima, with Hemadpanti temples of Shiva and Rameshwar.2.{Kasba) of Lasur pergana Gandapur, Adharsul pergana Ahmedabad and the villages of Porle (ditto), Pimpalvadi pergana Paithan and Gaudagau or Ahmedabad. So far as we have ascertained, Jategaon is in Karmala ( Sholapur ), and Adharsul
is near Yeola.source: Rajwade (Vaidya). 

The brothers spent the next few years tilling their fields. Then one day Maloji noticed a snake coming out of a hole in his field. As per popular superstitions, the snake is said to guard a hidden treasure. So Maloji, began digging the place. To his joy he found seven pots of of gold coins. He wisely lodged them at the house of a local banker named Punde at Chamargunda (present day Shrigonda. source : J.Sarkar). He called over his brother, and together they bought horses, saddles,arms,tents and employed a thousand troopers. With his small army (after briefly harassing Lakhujis jagir) , Malojirao (and his brother Vithoji) , aligned himself with his in laws, the Nimbalkars of Phaltan and entered directly in the service of the Nizamshah of Ahmednagar.

Note : The Nimbalkars of Phaltan were also considered local aristocracy. They were fief holders and claimed descent from the Parmara dynasty (thus Maratha rajputs).

The brothers participated in many a battle against the Bijapuris and the Mughals(there were conflicts with the Mughals during the early 17th century when Akbars forces invaded Ahmednagar), who were constantly at war , trying to gain each others territories. They fought under the command of the famous general of Nizamshah, the Abyssinian, Malik Ambar, and his fellow compatriot Ranadaulla Khan (Khan i Zaman). That is where they honed their skills in the art of warfare.
Malojirao also spent a large portion of his new found wealth in the construction of several temples, giving alms to the poor, the Brahmins and also for excavating a large tank on the arid Shambhu Mahadev hill in the Satara district. This brought him a lot of praise from the pilgrims who flocked to this holy place.
The Bhosales had by now grown in stature in the Nizamshahi court. The courtiers and perhaps even the king had even managed to persuade Lakhujirao Jadhav to give his daughter Jijabai’s hand in marriage to Malojirao Bhosale’s son, Shahaji. Something to which may have Lakhuji reluctantly agreed .Perhaps Malojiraos death in battlefield fighting for the Nizam may also have contributed to the Shahaji-Jijabai marraige.
After Malojirao’s death, the army of the Bhosales was commanded by his younger brother Vithoji (Vithoji had eight sons, ‘four have been found in the mughal service at the beginning of Shah Jahans reign viz. Kheloji ,Parsoji,Maloji II, and Mambaji: source Abdul Hamid- J.Sarkar, others being Sambaji,Nagoji,Trimbakji,Kavkaji) and later after Vithoji’s death (1623), by Malojis son, Shahaji raje Bhosale.

Note: noted that Maloji was childless for a long time and he had two sons Shahaji and Sharifji, after blessings from the Sufi saint Baba Shah Sharif and therefore named after the sufi saint. 

Note:Ref. Vaidya. It is certain that Maloji died about the end of 1528 or the middle of A. D. 1606 as in a sanad
of 'ravan’. 1529, we have the mention of Maloji as deceased and as subsequent documents mention Vithoji alone. Maloji is said to have been killed in the battle of Indapur fought by the Nizamshahi forces against
Bijapur. Vithoji dying some time hereafter, the leadership of the family came naturally to Shahaji, son of the elder Maloji, and he, with his brother Sarfoji and his eight cousins ( sons of Vithoji ) 

Meanwhile Malik Ambar, who had even humbled the might of the mughals, had died (AD.1626). He was succeeded by his son Fateh Khan as the next regent of Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar. Shahaji was deputed by Fateh Khan to raid East Khandesh against an invading mughal force. Shahaji displayed great valour there. Soon friction developed between Fateh Khan and his king and Fateh Khan was placed under arrest. This was the time of political intrigues amongst the various nobles of the Nizam shahi court. Sensing the chaos, Lakhujirao Jadhav had left the services of the Nizamshahi and had joined the Mughals (authors like Vaidya have stated the fight between the Bhosales and the Jadhavs as mentioned below in detail, and the subsequent Nizamshah/Malik Amber siding with the Bhosales as the cause for Lakhujiraos disenchantment with the Nizamshahi and desertion to the mughal camp), but disenchanted, returned soon to the Nizamshahi court (perhaps due to Shahajis request). But the Nizam wasn’t ready to forgive and forget and he had Lakhujirao murdered along with his sons(Achloji,Raghuji and Yeshwantrao) in the very court where they had once served ( Note,Malik Ambar had earlier died in 1626). Disconcerted about the treatment meted out to his father in law Lakhuji Jadhav and his sons, Shahaji left the Nizamshahi services. He rebelled against the Nizamshahi and tried to seize the country from Junnar to Ahmednagar. Later, he joined the Mughal services.He served there for an year and half (end of 1630-June 1632), but finding little scope amongst the largely predominant north Indian courtiers, he left its services and joined Adil Shah I of Bijapur, who was vying  for the brave warrior for a long time. (but Vaidya states that Shahajis cousins had grown jealous of him, and created bad blood between him and the rulers of the Nizamshahi, hence Shahaji moved over to the Adilshahi camp).There his courage impressed Adil Shah I and his deputy Murar Jagdev. But Adil Shah I died within a year. He was succeeded by his son Adil Shah II. This Adil Shah was said to be ill disposed towards his hindu nobles and had Murar Jagdev (Shahajis mentor in the Adilshahi court) murdered. Shahaji, sensing a danger to his life, left the services of Adilshah II.
Sometime in 1629, the Mughals were preparing a renewed attack on the kingdom of Ahmednagar(after Khan Jahan Lodi the governor of Deccan had rebelled against the Delhi court and had sought refuge in Ahmednagar). Scared, the Nizam Shah (Burhan Nizam Shah) released Fateh Khan and made him the regent again. But this time Fateh Khan had his master murdered (Feb 1632) and installed a puppet successor Hussain Nizam Shah in his place .Fateh Khan thus became the de facto ruler of the Nizamshahi kingdom. He even invited Shahaji raje Bhosale to be the commander of his forces. Shahaji accepted the offer. Fateh Khan even bought temporary peace by accepting the vassalage of the Mughals. But, secretly he desired freedom from the mughal yoke.Fateh Khan simultaneously opened diplomatic channels with the Deccan kingdoms of Bijapur and Golkunda to unite them against the Mughals . When the mughal emperor, Shah Jahan discovered Fateh Khans real intentions, he ordered his general Mahabbat Khan to attack Ahmednagar. The mughals came down heavily on Fateh Khan and he was soon defeated and captured. Fateh Khan and Hussain Nizam Shah were sent as prisoners to Delhi , and Ahmednagar was formally annexed to the Mughal empire.
But nobles like Shahaji raje Bhosale refused to submit to the Mughals. He rallied the forces of Ahmednagar under him and installed the young Murtuza III ( a descendent of the Nizamshahi) as the successor to the throne. Shahaji acted as his regent. He once again retreived several captured districts from the mughals including North Konkan. He repossessed more than one fourth of the old Nizamshahi territory(revenue worth 20 lakh ‘huns’coins) with the Bijapuri help and even thwarted Mughal attempts to seize Parenda. He ruled on behalf of the young king for three long years.
This time the Mughals decided on another strategy. Shah Jahan sent peace overtures to the Bijapur court. Both reached a pact, where in, they decided to jointly invade Ahmednagar and split the spoils of the war amongst themselves. Adilshahi commander Rayarao raised Shahajis estate in Poona to the ground ('he tilled the land with donkeys which made the land unfit for irrigation as per old superstitions).
Shahaji  was now isolated and completely outnumbered. He finally accepted defeat and ceded his seven earlier captured forts to the enemy (Oct.1636) and as per the treaty, also,entered into the services of Adilshah of Bijapur ( It is said that earlier, Shahaji had protected Shah Jahan for eight months in the Deccan ,when Shah Jahan as a prince had rebelled against his father Jahangir and sought refuge in the Deccan. This prompted Shah Jahan to spare Shahajis life and even pressed Adil Shah to enlist Shahaji in his court). Shahaji was given the territory of Bangalur (Bangalore in state of Karnataka ) as his jagir (estate). He was also allowed to keep his estate of Pune and Supa.
Shivaji was born to Shahaji and his wife Jijabai, during his tumultuous period (Note:Shivaji was born on 18TH Feb, 1630 as per Jedhe Shakavali,ref:Tilak,Shiv Bharata and Tanjore stone inscription , against an other date given by, author historian Grant Duff on basis of the bakhars (local chronologies) , which gave the birthdate of Shivaji as 3rd May 1627) on the fort Shivneri (which was under the care of Vishwasrao an relative of Shahaji ), while Shahaji was busy fighting the Nizamshahi forces.
While Jijabai gave birth to Shivaji, at the fort of Shivneri, Shahaji was on the run chased by his father in law Lakhuji. Both being in opposite camps.For some time there had been friction between Lakhuji and Shahaji. The reason for the same was this unfortunate incident.
Maratha sardars were attending a Durbar (court session) of the Nizamshah.While they were departing
from the palace, each one trying to crowd out the others, the elephant of a sardar named Khandagale became unruly and trampled some footmen to death. Dattaji, son of Jadhavrao, attacked the elephant. A skirmish thus began between him and Khandagale and the latter was assisted by the sons of Vithoji. A regular duel ensued between Dattaji and Sambhaji, son of Vithoji, in which Dattaji was killed. Lakhuji Jadhavrao who had left 
earlier, heard the terrible news of his son's death,and, infuriated, returned to attack Sambhaji (Vithoji's son). Shahaji now went to the help of his cousin Sambhaji and a battle was fought wherein Sambhaji was killed.
The Nizamshah himself, on hearing of this scuffle, came out, and, intervening, separated the combatants.
Thus began that enmity between Jadhavrao and Shahaji, according to Shiva-Bharata ,which the
Bakharkars have wrongly carried back to the time of Shahaji's marriage with Jijabai.
After this scuffle , Jadhavrao thought that the Nizamshah was unduly favouring the Bhosales, and he left his service and went over to the Moguls. This desertion was taken advantage of by Adilshah, who invited the Moguls to attack Nizamshahi from the north while he attacked it from the south. A battle was fought between the two sides at Bhatavadi in 1623/4 A.D (Shahaji's son Sharifji was killed in this battle).This was the time when Shahaji found himself besieged by his father in law Lakhujirao, and he sent his pregnant wife to the safety of fort Shivneri (which was under the control of his relative Vijayrao Sidhoji Vishwasrao, father in law of Shahajis brother Sharifji) where she gave birth to Shivaji.
Shiva-Bharata gives a detailed description of this battle and mentions by name the many captains in the three armies, namely of Delhi, Bijapur and Ahmednagar. Eventually Malik Amber obtained a signal victory over the two allies, Muila Mahmad, Sar-Lashkar of Bijapur, being killed and many captains of the Mogul and Bijapur armies being taken prisoners. The Bhosales fought bravely on Malik Amber's side, Sharifji (Shahajis brother) being among the slain in the army of Ahmednagar. This was Shahaji's first brilliant exploit on the battle-field.
The battle is referred to in a letter of Pedro, an Italian traveller, dated 1624 October 31st which supports the account of Shiva-Bharata and may thus be taken to have been fought some time in the middle of that year*
It is probable that Shahaji got at this time, as reward, the mokasas (inams-reward/jagirs-estates) of Poona and Supa, which were beyond the Bhima and which were, as stated before, subjects of frequent conflicts between
Ahmednagar and Bijapur.
Shahaji was appointed Sar-Lashkar or general in Ahmednagar army- Shiva-Bharata relates that the sons of Vithoji became hereafter jealous of Shahaji's greatness. Malik Amber seems to have supported Shahaji's cousins in the quarrel, as the ruling power, also as usual, keeps up disputes in powerful sardars families. Shahaji was dissatisfied and he retired to Poona where he built a house for himself. From there he was invited by Ibrahim Adilshah to enter his service and Shahaji with his followers became an Adilshahi sardar. This is supported by a document dated 19th December 1625, in which Shahaji is contemptuously described as ‘ Shahaji Bhosala, Adilshahi ‘. Another document, a sanad dated 28th July, describes him, however, as ‘ Meherban Shahaji Raje Sarlashkar ‘. Both these documents relate to the Poona District and show that while in
July 1625, Shahaji was a Sarlashkar or commander of forces in Nizamshahi and enjoyed the fief of Poona. In December 1625 he was in Adilshahi service and Poona had been taken away from him. Shahaji rendered important services to Adilshah by conquering Mudhoji of Phaltan and some refractory chiefs in Karnatic and in Keral. He remained in Adilshahi service from about October 1625 to about the end of 1627. From a document dated 10th January 1626, it appears that he was then a Sarlashkar in Adilshahi, and at his request
the Adilshah granted the desagata of Talebid and some rights on the fort of Panhala to Sambhaji and Dharoji Mohite. These were probably relatives of Shahaji's second wife who belonged to the Mohite family.
In May 1626 Malik Amber died and about a year or so after Ibrahim Adilshah also died. The former was succeeded by his son Fattehkhan who was favourably disposed towards Shahaji, and the latter by Mahomed Adilshah who was a staunch Shia and an intolerant Mahomedan. About the change of policy the latter initiated we shall speak later ; but Shahaji now thought it safe to leave his service and go to Nizamshah, his old master. Earlier, Muhammed Adilshah had started a systematic persecution of his hindu subjects (led by his men,Mustafa Khan,Afzal Khan and Asad Khan), by destroying several temples. The idea was to force all hindus into meek submission.This was when his hindu minister, Murar Jagdev rebelled against Muhammed Adilshah.But Murar Jagdev was soon murdered by assasins set by Mustafa khan.Probably this incident added to Shahajis insecurity, and he left Adilshahi and went back to the services of the Nizamshahi.
He again got his Poona mansab to which was added Patas apparently. It also seems that Nizamshahi was threatened at this time by Shahjahan and Shahaji being called by the Nizamshah thought it proper to join his old master. The Poona pergana with Patas was given him again and he was sent against the advancing Mogul force. Shahaji remained in this service till the fall of Nizamshahi in 1636, with the exception of a short interval, when he had gone over to the Moguls, as will be presently related. Extract.C.V.Vaidya
Note: The children of Sharifji were Mahadji and Trimbakji who fought against Shivaji from the army of Shaista khan. 
From Jijabai, Shahaji already had an elder son Sambhaji. When settled in Bangalore, Shahaji took on a second wife Tukabai ,from the Mohite family . That has been attributed as the reason why Jijabai moved away (another reason given was the enimity between Jijabai father Lakhuji rao and Shahaji created a distance between the husband and wife), along with her son Shivaji, to their estate in Pune. But the historians differ on this. It was a regular practice in those days for people of higher social standing to have more than two wives, so, Jijabai couldn’t have possibly been displeased on this account, and she had agreed to move to Pune, only to manage the Shahajis estates there (because as per the treaty with Bijapur , Shahaji wasn’t to enter the boundaries of the old Ahmednagar kingdom, lest he decides to rebel again). Sambhaji stayed on with his father Shahaji, and his step mother Tukabai, while Shivaji grew up in the wild lands of Pune under the care of his mother Jijabai and his guardian (and manager of his estates) Dadoji Kondeo.
Note: As per Marathi Riyasat by G.S.Sardesai and Shri Raja Shivchatrapati by Mehendale, Shahaji sired another son by his second wife,Tukabai Mohite, by the name of Koyaji raje and through Narsabai by the name of Santaji raje. Also there were children through his other concubines, namely Shivji,Pratapji and Hiroji (Farzand). Acknowledgements : Rajesh Khilari. 
Later when Shivaji grew up into manhood, he challenged the very court of Bijapur, where his father Shahaji was a courtier. In all probability Shahaji covertly supported his sons activities, due to which Shahaji , for a brief period, even had to face imprisonment in the Bijapuri prison. The Bijapuri forces even invaded Shahaji’s estates at Bangalore and Pune. But his brave sons, Sambhaji at Bangalore and Shivaji at Pune , stoically repelled these attacks. Soon the Bijapur court reached a compromise of sorts and Shahaji was released from prison. During this period Sambhaji was killed, treacherously murdered as historians say by Afzal Khan, an fellow Bijapur courtier and Shahaji’s most bitter rival out there. But Shivaji had his revenge when he killed Afzal Khan in an latter encounter. Shahajis son Ekoji (or Vyankoji) from Tukabai went on to establish the royal Bhosala dynasty at Thanjavur (in Tamil Nadu state, south India).
Shahaji died in an accident at Khodegiri near Bangalore when he was thrown of his horse.
Shahaji died in AD 1664 (or 1665).

Shahaji raje left behind sons : Venkoji or Ekoji (from Tukabai), Santaji (from Narsabai),Illegitimate sons- Raibhanji,Pratapji, Bhivuji,Hiroji,Koyaji.

Bhosale lineage: There are different versions about the Bhosale origins. Some (including Shivaji) claimed descent from the Sisodiya clan of Chittor , Rajasthan, while one historian Dr. Ramchandra Dhere has even claimed their origins from the Hoysalas of Karnataka (Bhosale-Bhosala being a distortion of Hoysala). But the Rajput theory seems more documented.
Some of the Bhosale genealogical claims are as under:
Kolhapur Royal chronicles:Lakshmana simha - Sajjana simha (reaches Maharashtra in 1310 AD) - Dilip simha - Shivaji I - Bhosaji - Devarajji - Ugrasena -Mahulaji - Kheloji - Janakoji - Sambhaji - Babaji - Maloji - Shahaji - Chatrapati Shivaji Satara Museum chronicles:Lakshmana simha - Sajjana simha (reaches Maharashtra in 1310 AD) - Dilip simha –simhaji I - Bhosaji - Devarajji (came to south India) Indrasenji - Shubhakrishna - Rupaji- Bhumindraji - Dhapaji - Barbatji - Kheloji -Jaya-Karna - Sambhaji- Babaji - Maloji - Shahaji - Chatrapati shivaji Note:From enquiry of Pandit Sukhdeo Prasadji, Prime Minister of Udaipur, it appears that "the name Bhosaji,does not occur in their genealogical tables nor is it common among Rajputs." It ia probable that this name was inserted by pedigree-writers to explain the surname.Ref: Vaidya. Thanjavur stone inscription (surprisingly very different from Maratha records:Venkoji - Sharabhoji (came to south India) - Mahasena - Ekashiva - Ramachandra - Bhimaraya - Ekoji - Variha - EkojI II - Brahmaji - Shahaji - Ambaji - Parasoji - Babaji - Maloji - Shahaji - Ekoji or Vyankoji (First Maratha king of Thanjavur) The Jintikars of Gwalior give the following genealogy:Bakhtaji (came to south India from north) - Nagoji - Ekoji/Vyankoji - Babaji - Maloji - ShahajI - Sambhaji (elder brother of Shivaji) - Umaji - Parsoji (may not be a real son) - Jintikar Bhosales
As per Tod’s account from Rajput chronicles:Ajay simha - Sajjana simha - Dilipa simha – Shivaji I - Bhoraji - Devaraj ji - Ugrasena - Mahulji- Khailuji - Janakoji - Sattuji - Sambhaji - Chatrapati Shivaji From royal Rajput documents with seals, termed ‘sanads’ one can confirm the following:Lakshmana simha - Ajaya simha - Sajjana simha - Dilip simha - Sidhoji - Bhairoji (Bhosaji?) - Devarajji - Ugrasena – Shubakrishna As per Chitins bakhar: Shubha Krishna- Roop singh-Bhoomi - Dhaapji-Barbhatji Khalkarn(Khalaji) –Jaikarna Sambhaji-Babaji-Maloji-Shahaji- Chatrapati Shivaji. (contributed by Atul Kalaje) (Alternate)
Maharana Laxmansingh-Sajjan singh- Dilip singh- Sinhaji- Bhosaji-Devrajji-Indrasen
Note: the genealogy
given by Chitnis says that Devarajaji, son of Bhosaji,
came to the Deccan about 1415 A. D. 
As per Mahadev Dongare : Khelkarna-Jaikarna-Maalkarna-Sambhaji-Babaji-Maloji-Shahaji- Chatrapati Shivaji(contributed by Atul Kalaje)
Maharana Lakshman singh-Ajay singh- Sajjan singh- Dilip singh- Sinhaji-Bhosaji-Devaraj-Indrasen (Ugrasen) 
As per Bhide: Sajjan singh- Dilipsingh-Sinhaji- Bhosaji-Devarajji- Khelkarna(contributed by Atul Kalaje) As per Sane : Shivrao Chittodkar-Bhimsingh-Vijaybhanu-Khelkarna-Jayakarna-Mahakarna-Raja Shiv- Babaji- Maloji- Shahaji- Chatrapati Shivaji.
(contributed by Atul Kalaje)

Note:The Rajput theory.extract. author Takakhav(adapted from K. A .Keluskars work)
Shivaji Maharaj, the illustrious founder of the Maratha Power, derived his descent from the renowned Bhonsle family. This noble Maratha house claimed an ancient Kshatriya origin. It is said that the family was transferred to the uplands of Maharashtra by a Rajput warrior, Devraj Maharana by name. The family tradition tells a long tale of chequered adventures and vicissitudes. In what is now known as the modern province of Oudh, there ruled for centuries the ancient princes of the royal Sesodia family. They claimed descent from the mythical Solar Race, which along with the Lunar Race comprises the genealogy of every Kshatriya family in the land. One of these Sesodia(Sisodiya) princes crossed the Narbada (Narmada river) and became the founder of an independent principality on its southern banks. The fortunes of this family were, however, destined to wane before the rising glory of the famous Shalivan (Satavahana), who inaugurated a new Hindu era, which is still current south of the Narbada. The ruling Bhonsle prince of the time was defeated and his kingdom, annexed. At this crisis the afflicted queen of the prince escaped with her young son of five or six years across the Narbada and sought shelter in the inhospitable regions of Mewar in the vicinity of the Vindhya Mountains.
There she found an asylum in a poor Brahman family, her son keeping the Brahman's kine. Once while out engaged on his cow-herd duties the boy discovered a hidden treasure. This he disclosed to his patron and acquainted him with the story of his origin and fall. The Brahman listened with sympathy and encouraged and exhorted him to endeavour to recover his royal power, giving him to that end every assistance within his means. It was a mountainous region in the possession of the Bhils, with whom they had to fight.
When the conquest of the country was completed, they erected a fort upon those mountain heights under the shadow of a temple of the goddess Bhawani. This fort they named Chitrakote. They restored the ancient temple of Bhavani and built another within the fort in honour of Eklingji Shiv. The descendants of this prince are said to have reigned at Chitrakote for about five hundred years. This fort of Chitrakote became afterwards famous in history as the fort of Chitore. Then followed the establishment of Mahomedan power at Delhi, and the interminable wars between the Mahomedan emperors and the Rajput princes. Many Hindu kings
had to acknowledge defeat and become vassals of the Mahomedan emperors. These rulers carried on constant wars with the Rajput state of Chitore, but with little success to boast of The Chitore princes defended their kingdom and independence very bravely. About 1275 the Maharana Lakshman Singh succeeded to the throne of Chitore. The affairs of the administration were in the charge of his uncle, Bhim Singh. This Bhim Singh had for his consort one of the greatest beauties in the land, Rani Padmini. This princess is said to have come from Ceylon. Her great reputation for beauty reached the ears of Allauddin Khilji, the emperor of Delhi, who conceived an unholy passion for her. With an immense army he advanced upon Chitore and laid siege to the fort. The Rajputs fought with the valour for which they are famous; they beat back the enemy in all their
advances, but still Allauddin would not raise the siege. He had invested the fortress on all sides with very powerful forces. The garrison had now exhausted all their resources. Driven to desperation the Rajput king resolved at the head of his whole army to make a sudden sortie upon the enemy and meet a warrior's death on the field of battle. (Some chronicles describe the Rani Padmini as the wife of the Maharana Lakshman Singh).
Rajputs to a man applauded the plan. But surely it was not desirable that the whole race of the Sesodias should be extirpated from the earth, and means must be found to perpetuate it. The king had twelve sons. They all vied with each other in the desire to sacrifice their lives upon the battle-field. But the second prince Ajay Singh was the special favourite of his royal father. The Raja explained to him, how undesirable it was that his royal race should be totally extinguished and commanded him to betake himself to an inaccessible part of the Aravalli Mountains, known as Kailwada, and save himself. This advice was by no means palatable to a prince of the courage of Ajay Singh . But overcome by the urgent entreaties of his father he was obliged to acquiesce in this plan, and according to his father's wishes escaped to Kailwada. Thereupon at Chitore, the Raja with his followers and kinsmen dashed forth upon the enemy, and nearly fourteen hundred of them were cut to pieces. The fort fell into the hands of the Mahomedans. The whole place was pillaged and plundered; not even the royal insignia were saved ; the gigantic war-drum and the massive gates composed of an ingenious amalgam of five metals, celebrated throughout the land, fell into the hands of the enemy. When, as related above, Ajay Singh made his escape, he took with him Humbir Singh(Vir Hammir), the minor son of his eldest brother. He then rallied the remnants of his people and again formed a fairly large principality. As Humbir Singh grew in years he proved himself a brave and capable leader. Ajay Singh was a man of a very pious disposition and loved his nephew with a father's love. He crowned him king of his forefathers' realm and himself took charge
of the administration. They built the fortress of Rajnagar and made it their capital. Chitnis's chronicle gives a different version to the effect that , Lakshman Singh's his queen escaped to the Bhil country with two princes, who subsequently propagated the race. return to Chitore until they had retrieved from the enemy the royal drum and insignia. Until they had curbed the insolent pride of those hostile bands who had decimated their race and desecrated the capital of their hereditary kingdom, they were resolved not to carry their war-standards before them, and to deny to themselves the luxury of plate and couches, and not even to trim their beards. This hatred of Islam they transmitted to their posterity. They made new conquests; they built new forts and consolidated their power; and at last with Udaipur as their capital, they established their independence.
On the demise of Ajay Singh, his son Sajan Singh thought it unwise to quarrel with his cousin for a partition
of territory, and considered it more glorious to win new realms for himself. With this design, this brave
prince advanced southwards. The territory of Sondhwad was conquered by him, and there he made his capital. Among his descendants we read the names of Dilip Singhji Maharana, Singhji Maharana, Bhosaji Maharana, and Devrajji Maharana in succession. All these constantly fought with the Mahomedans and preserved their kingdom. But at length Devrajji, quite exhausted with the frequency of the Mahomedan invasions, gave up his kingdom, and coming down to the south maintained a precarious independence as a polygar in the valleys of the Krishna and the Bhima. On coming to the Decean he changed his name for fear of the Mahomedans and assumed that of Bhosawant Bhonsle. His object was, if possible, to lay the foundations of a new sovereignty in this land. But the Mahomedans carried everything before them and his high ambition was not destined to be realized. At last he had to content himself with the Patelship of Singnapur. His descendants afterwards obtained by purchase the Patelships of various places, such as, Khanwat, Hingnsi Begdi,Dewalgaon, Verul, Vavi, Mungi etc. In the line of direct descent from Devrajji we have Indrasen, krshnaji, Rupsinghji, Bhumindraji, Dhapji Barhatji Khalaji* alias Khalkarn, Karnasinghji alias Jayakarn, Sambhaji and Babaji alias Shivaji. The last named Babaji was born in 1533.
Source: Life of Shivaji by Takakhav (adapted from Keluskars work).

Note 2: As per History of the Maratha People by C.A.Kincaid and Rao Bahadur D.B.Parasnis Lakshman Singh, the ancestor of the house of Udaipur. One of the family, Devrajji by name,t after a quarrel with the Rana of Udaipur fled to the Deccan. There he and his descendants assumed the name of Bhosle * from the family fief of Bhosavat in Udaipur. Another story is that two brothers, Kheloji and Malkamaji or Maloji, came together from Udaipur to offer their services as free lances to the king of Ahmadnagar. Khelkamaji or Kheloji died in battle. Malkamaji was drowned while bathing in a river. Malkamaji's son Babaji purchased the Patilki or headship of the village of Verul near Daulatabad. Babaji had two sons, Maloji t and Vithoji, who were the real founders of the greatness of the Bhosle family. 

All genealogies are pretty conflictiong , but there is a common lineage amongst all the maratha genealogies , i.e, from Babaji to Maloji to Shahaji to Shivaji.
There is a lot of controversy about whether the Bhosales were indeed descendents branching out from the famous rajput clan of the Sisodias. The Sisodiyas in turn claim to belong to the earliest of the ruling dynasties (the ‘Suryavanshis’ or descendents of the Solar dynasty from Ishvaku and the Raghu vanshis of the Ramayana) from ancient India. The Sisodiya clan boasts of great kings like Rana Sangha and Rana Pratap and a connection from them to the reviver of the hindu fortunes (Shivaji) after an long Islamic rule is indeed remarkable.
It is alleged by many historians like Sir.J.Sarkar that Gaga Bhatt, the Brahmin from Benaras (originally from Maharashtra) contrived Shivaji’s genealogy to the Sisodiyas, in order to prove him a Kshatriya (warrior), when he was of the shudra (peasant) stock, so that he can be coronated officially. But many historians including the contemporaries of Shivaji have attested the fact that Shivaji was indeed a Rajput Kshatriya. Some of the notables amongst them were:

1) Radha Madhava Vilasa Champu of poet Jayarama (written in the court of Shahaji at Banglur,1654) describes Shivaji as descending from the Sisodias of Chittor. Jayaramas poetry was composed much before Shivajis coronation.
Note: But we find that this same Rajput descent has been mentioned by Jayaram who, years before Shivaji's
coronation, wrote a poem on Shahaji. Therein he says that Shahaji was descended from Dalip born in the family of the Rana who was the foremost among all kings of the earth. This Dalip was, we find, a grandson of Lakshmanasen, Rana of Chitod,who came to the throne in 1303 A. D. 
2)Shivabharata of Paramananda (a court poet of Shivaji): Shivaji and Shahji are of the Ikshvaku lineage like the Sisodiyas.3)Parnalaparvata grahanakhyana states that Shivaji is a Sisodia4)Bhushan the Hindi poet speaks of the Bhosales being Rajput..5)Shahji in his letter to the Sultan Adilshah states he is a Rajput.6) Mughal historian Khafi Khan describes Shivaji as a descendent of the Ranas of Chittor.(Khafi Khan was a very harsh critic of Shivaji and has even personalized his accounts condemming Shivaji to hell. Khafi Khan has claimed that though Shivaji’s ancestors did come from the family of Ranas of Chittor, they (Dilip singh) were their illegitimate offsprings ( But Khafi khan was a Islamic historian and most of his accounts of Shivaji are very harsh and biased against Shivaji.). 7) An intelligence dispatch of the East India company from 28th Nov 1659 reports: “Sevagy (Shivaji),a great rashpoote (Rajput) issues forth from his fort Rayguhr(Raigad) to strike blows on the Emperor, Duccan, Golconda and the Portuguese.”8) Tod and Ojha who had access to the Rajput records claimed that as per those records there is a mention of the Bhosles descending from Ajay Singh, the uncle of Vir Hammir.

Sajjan singh was considered the patriarch of the Nagpur Bhosales. According to the Chitnis bakhar , after the death of Shivaji, (his sons Sambhaji under house arrest in Panhala and Rajaram being absent), Sabaji Bhosale of Nagpur who was serving in Shivajis army performed the final rites of Shivaji, which is possible only for a relative.
Moreover, Shahu, Shivajis grandson was childless, so he wanted to make one of the Nagpur Bhosales his successor(to the throne of Satara) , before finally settling for Rajarams descendent, as he was more closer amongst the kins. Again this can be possible if the Nagpur Bhosales were indeed relatives of the Bhosales of Satara.
One should also consider the fact Lakhuji Jadavrao a Kshatriya claiming royal ancestry from the Yadavas could not have commited social harakiri especially in those times by marrying off his daughter to a Shudra viz. Shahaji the father of Shivaji. It would have been only possible if Lakhuji considered Shahaji to be a Kshatriya himself.
There was also this letter by Shahaji to Ali Adilshah II that saysthat he is a rajput (Itihas manjari,DV Apte)
and a conversation at Agra between the local rajputs and Shivaji where the rajputs refer to Shivaji as a clan member (House of Shivaji,Sarkar)
Both above references: The Marathas- Stewart Gordon.
Thus there are several reasons to the theory that Shivaji indeed had Rajput genes and those of the Sisodiyas in particular.

List of the Thanjavur/Tanjore royal Bhosale family (through Venkoji s/o Shahajiraje Bhosale and brother of Shivaji:

Tanjore Bhosales or Thanjavur Bhosales were a dynasty that was started in Thanjavur , Tamil Nadu, in the latter seventeenth century  by Venkoji Raje Bhosale, the son of Shahaji raje Bhosale and step brother of the famous Shivaji raje Bhosale ,the great Maratha warrior king.

List of Kings

Venkoji (Ekoji I) raje Bhosale(b.1630 as per Maratha records and 1700+ as per English records – d.1683)
was the son of Shahaji raje Bhosale and his wife Tukabai (from the family of Mohites hailing from Bijapur , Karnataka). His father Shahajiraje was a noble in the Adilshahi court of Bijapur and held entrusted with the jagir of Bangalore. (It is to be noted that he stayed with his parents and his eldest step brother Sambhaji, who died early. His younger step brother, Shivaji , the natural brother of Sambhaji  stayed at their Poona jagir along with mother Jijabai, who was Shahajirajes eldest wife). Like his father, Venkoji too became a noble in the Bijapur court, and often assisted the Bijapur armies in their fight against his half brother Shivaji.
In 1673, the Madurai Nayak invaded the Thanjavur kingdom. Its erstwhile ruler appealed to the Bijapur court for help, which in turn deputed Venkoji to drive out the Nayak of Madurai from Thanjavur. Venkoji successfully drove  away the Nayak from Thanjavur, but himself became the king (as per Wilkes, after the deposed ruler of Thanjavur refused to pay for Venkojis war expenses).After the death of the Bijapur Sultan, Venkoji crowned himself the king of Thanjavur.
In 1676, Shivaji embarked on his southern campaign to unify the South under the Maratha rule. Shivaji  first captured Gingee in Tamil Nadu with help from Sultan Tanashah of Golkunda. Since Gingee was in his control. He wanted a link between Maharashtra and Gingee, which was the Mysore region . This was a region that was traditionally the jagir of his father Shahajiraje, but was since neglected. Therefore he approached his step brother and demanded Mysore as his share in the paternal estate. Predictably Venkoji refused. Venkoji even walked away from their meeting place without informing his brother (probably fearing detention). Angry at this insolence from his younger brother. Shivaji attacked and took possession of Venkojis territory (Jagdevgad and its surrounding regions, Chidambar,Vridhachal and Kolar). Shivaji  placed another half brother Santaji to watch Venkojis movements along with his lieutenant Hambirrao Mohite. Venkoji retaliated by attacking Santoji and Hambirraos forces at Ahiri (6th Nov1677). But Venkoji was completely routed. Shivaji  also conquered Venkojis territories in Mysore region (But a small portion viz the regions Bangalore,Hoskat,Asilikatte in Balapur were given to Venkojis wife Dipabai as a maintenance grant). Eventually Venkoji sued for peace and paid almost six lakh rupees as a compensation to Shivaji. In 1680, Shivaji came to an understanding with the Bijapur court, whereby Venkoji the vassal of Bijapur was forced to accept his elder brother Shivaji as his overlord and pay him a annual tribute (the tribute stopped after the death of Shivaji , which took place in the same year).
Kilavan, the chief of Ramnad wanted to free himself from the yoke of his overlord, the Nayak of Madurai. He sought Venkojis help for the same. In the war that concluded Venkoji and his partner won the day.
Venkoji was a great patron of arts and literature. Venkoji himself wrote an telegu version of the epic Ramayana (Note:Venkojis wife Dipubai was also a poetess). He also constructed several temples which stand testimony to the grandeur of Thanjavur.

Shahuji I (b.1672)
He was the eldest son and successor of Venkoji. He inherited his fathers throne at a tender age of twelve.
Shahuji helped his cousin Rajaram (younger son of Shivaji of Maharshtra) recapture the fort of Jinji from the Mughals. As a result a mughal force under Zulfikar Khan attacked Thanjavur(1691) and made Shahuji I a vassal. The mughals even took away lands conquered from Nayaki (Queen) Mangammal of Tiruchirapalli earlier captured by  Shahuji. In 1700, Shahujis lieutenant Babaji attacked Tiruchilapalli along with the king of Ramnad. But the Nayaki Mangammal inflicted defeat on the forces of Shahuji and Ramnad. Meanwhile Shahuji found common cause with the Nayaki and switched sides . This infuriated the Ramnad Sethupathy Kilavan. He sent a huge army which defeated the forces of Nayaki Mangammal and even captured the fort of Aranthangi (1709) from Shahuji.
In 1709, Shahuji I abdicated the throne of Thanjavur and became an ascetic.
Shahuji I patronized arts , literature and architecture during his tenure.

Serfoji I  (1675-1728)
He was the brother and successor of Shahuji I.
He captured the Marava kingdom and annexed it to Thanjavur. He also created two zamindaris of Sivaganga and Ramnad from a portion of Marava.
Serfoji was also said to be a great patron of arts and literature.

Tukoji (1677-1736)
Was the younger brother and successor of Serfoji I. He aided Meenakshi, the Queen of Tiruchirapalli in quelling a revolt by the Polygars.
He was responsible for introducing Hindustani music in Thanjavur. He also composed a musical work Sangeeta Samamrita. He was also said to be a linguist.

Ekoji II (1696-1737)
Was the son and successor of Tukoji. He resisted a attack by Chada sahib the Nawab of Carnatic. But Ekoji couldn’t rule for long . He died within a year due to supposed ill heath.
Was the widow and successor (1737) of Ekoji II. She fought a succession battle with Katturaja , a pretender to the throne, who claimed to be a son of Serfoji I. She also had to cope with an ambitious minister Sayyid. Katturaja sought French and Chanda Sahibs help and eventually usurped the throne of Thanjavur. He was also helped by Sayyid in his endeavour, who in turn imprisoned Sujanbai and let Katturaja take her place instead.
Shahuji II
Katturaja assumed the name Shahuji II when he ascended the throne of Thanjavur(1738). Katturaja had earlier promised Karaikkal to the French. But Katturaja dithered on his promise. As a result the French instigated Chanda sahib to overthrow Katturaja. They did the same with the pretext that Katturaja was not a legitimate son of Serfoji (and was born from a washerwoman).Katturaja was imprisoned.
Katturaja then exhorted Pratapsingh , an son of  Tukoji and his concubine Annapurna to ascend the throne, lest an outside claimant usurps the throne.
Pratapsingh did ascend the throne. But had to face a challenge to his throne from Katturaja who wanted a comeback in power, along with Chanda sahib and some palace officials like Sayyid and Koyaji Kattigai.
But the plot was discovered and Sayyid was executed.

Pratapsingh  (d.1763)
Ascended the throne in 1739. In 1748 ,when Katturaja made attempts to seize power, he  sought the help of the French. The English (British East India Company) sided Pratapsingh, but switched sides to Katturaja when he offered them Devekottai. The English tried to seize Devekottai by force on two occasions. However after the second attempt Pratapsingh entered into a treaty with the English and gave them Devekottai.
Dost Ali , the Nawab of Carnatic , overthrew Pratapsingh and captured temporary power at Thanjavur. But Marathas from Maharashtra launched an attack killing Dost Ali, and reinstating Pratapsingh.
But soon (1742) the Nizam of Hyderabad attacked Thanjavur , making them his vassals.
The  Nawab of Carnatic, Muhammad Ali attacked  Thanjavur. However, their common ally, the British East India, mediated  a truce between them. As per Pratapsingh had to pay twenty lakhs as arrears and an annual tribute of four lakhs to the Nawab of Carnatic. In return, Coiladdy and Yelengadu were ceded to Thanjavur.
Pratapsingh also lost Hanumantagudi to the Raja of Ramnad.
Pratapsingh  died on 16th dec 1763.

Thuljaji  (1738-1787)
Was the eldest son and successor of Pratapsingh. He tried wresting back Hanumantgudi from the Raja of Ramnad, but was defeated by the joint forces of Ramnad and the Nawab of Carnatic. Thuljaji was also deposed(1773) from Thanjavur as a consequence of this war.
Thuljaji was restored on the Thanjavur throne by the British East india company in 1776, but he  henceforth had to pay an annual tribute to both the company and the Nawab of Carnatic.
In 1780, a war broke out between Tipu Sultan of Mysore and the British, and Tipus forces attacked and plundered Thanjavur (1784) leaving behind an impoverished state.
Thuljaji was well versed in Sanskrit,Telugu and Marathi. He was a great patron of arts and litreture.
Thuljaji died in 1787 at the age of fouty nine. He didn’t have a son. So his adopted son Serfoji II (from within the Bhosale family) ascended the throne at a tender age of ten. Thuljajis brother Amarsingh acted as his regent.
Serfoji  II (1777-1832)
His uncle Amarsingh (Ramaswami Amarsimha Bhosale) deprived Serfoji even basic education, after usurping his throne soon after the death of Thuljaji. So his fathers confidante Rev Schwartz, a Danish Missionary,  sent him to Madras, where he became proficient in Tamil,Telugu,English,French,German ,Latin,Danish,Dutch,Urdu,Sanskrit.
He was restored to the Thanjavur throne by the British East India company, but the real power remained with the company.
Thuljaji however proved an efficient administrator, social reformer and educationist. He constructed several schools,hospitals,rest rooms,water tanks,buildings, zoological garden,meterological station,shipyard in Thanjavur. He patronised arts and literature and himself penned works like Kumarasambhavachampu,Mudrakshachaya,devendra Kuruvanji.He contributed immensely to the Saraswati Mahal Library. He also introduced western music in Thanjavur. He also had history of the Bhosale dynasty engraved in Brihadeshwara temple.
Serfoji II died on 7th March 1832. His funeral procession was said to be attended by almost 90,000 people, indicating his popularity.

Shivaji II  (d.1855)
He was the son and successor of Serfoji II. He ruled from 1832 to 1855 for a period of twenty two years.

He patronised arts and literature.
After the death of Shivaji II, and in absense of any legitimate heirs, the Thanjavur kingdom was annexed by the British East India company as per their ‘Doctrine of Lapses’.
The kingdom of Thanjavur later had only titular monarchs.

They were as under:
Rani Vijaya Mohana bai (1845-1886) daughter of Shivaji II
Shambhusinghji rao (d.1891) 
He was the adopted son of Rani Vijayabai. The adoption and succession were not recognised by the government of India, and therefore Shambhusinghji rao was not allowed to use the royal titles of his predecessors.

1. A History of the Maratha people by G. A. Kincaid and Rao Bahadur D. B. Parasnis.( Humphrey Milford Oxford University press)
2.History of the Mahrathas by James Grant Duff (Exchange press, Bombay)
3.The Life of Shivaji Maharaj by N.S.Takakhav(adapted from the work in Marathi by Keluskar.K.A (Manoranjan press, Bombay).
4.Shivaji the founder of Maratha Swaraj by C.V.Vaidya (S.R.Sardesai,Navin Samartha Vidyalaya’s Samartha Bharat Press, Poona).
5.Shivaji and his times by Sir Jadunath Sarkar (Orient Longman).
6. Chatrapati Shivaji by Setu Madhavrao Pagadi (Continental Prakashan)
7. Studies in Indian History (Bookhive),
8. A History of India by Percival Spear (Penguin).


The Royal Nimbalkars of Phaltan

Phaltan was a princely state (feudatory) in Maharashtra, under the Satara agency and later the Deccan agency. It was the seat of the royal family of Naik Nimbalkars.
The Naik Nimbalkars were previously Pawars (who took the surname of Nimbalkar from their village Nimblak in Phaltan) and claim descent from the Parmara dynasty. Their branches even ruled over small principalities like Kharda in Ahmednagar district (e.g Haibatrao and his son Sultanrao Naik Nimbalkar-Khardekar who served the Maratha forces as the Sarlashkar of Ch Shahus forces. Later shifted loyalties to the Nizam of Hyderabad. Later mended fences) ; Vairag (e.g Nimbaji (husband of Daryabai, the sister of Ramraje)a sarlashkar during time of Ch.Ramraje and Mansingh who fought against Hyder Ali. Also had a stint in the Nizams camp) Karnala / Osmanabad (e.g Rambhaji); Ashti-Bramhagaon (Sidhoji Naik Nimbalkar-brother of Haibatrao who also served as Sarlashkar when Sultanrao due to differences crossed over to the Nizam of Hyderabad. During the time of Nanasaheb eshwa, one Bahirji Nai Nimbalkar was in charge of the Ashti pargana) .
Padakla Jagdevrao Parmar (1291-1327) , son of Nimbraj I, a rajput warrior from the Parmara clan, entered the service of Sultan Tughlaq of Delhi. He was killed in battle and his son Naik Nimbraj II was granted a fief of Phaltan (and probably the title Naik which means chief) - a pargana of 84 villages, for his services.
Naik Nimbraj Nimbalkar II (1327-1349).son. founder of the state of Phaltan.
Naik Vanang Bhupal Nimbalkar (1349-1374)son. Town captured by the enemy (?).Vanang was put to death.
Naik Vanangpal Nimbalkar (1390-94)son.recaptured Phaltan, reestablishing his rule.
Naik Vangoji Nimbalkar I(1394-1409)son.He probably was a feudatory of the Bahamani sultans.
Naik Maloji Nimbalkar I (1409-20)son
Naik Baji Nimbalkar I (1420-45)son
Naik Powarrao Nimbalkar (1445-70)son
Naik Baji Nimbalkar II (1470-1512)son. He was probably a feudatory of Nizamshah of Ahmednagar.
Naik Mudhoji Nimbalkar II (1512-27)son
Naik Baji Dharrao Nimbalkar (1527-60)son
Naik Maloji Nimbalkar II (1560-70)son.
Naik Vangoji (Jagpalrao)Nimbalkar II(1570-1630).son.His sister Dipabai married Maloji Bhosale , grandfather of the illustrious Ch.Shivaji Maharaj.He was probably killed in a battle with the Mughals.
Naik Mudhoji Nimbalkar II (1630-44)son. After the fall of Nizamshahi , remained independent for sometime and was killed in battle with the forces of  the Adilshahi sultanante of Bijapur. 
Naik Bajaji Nimbalkar I (1651-76)son. He became a vassal of Adilshah of Bijapur. His sister Saibai was married to Ch.Shivaji. He was arrested by Afzal Khan, the Bijapur general when he ventured into Satara to subdue Shivaji and released him only after Bajaji had paid a huge ransom. He converted to Islam but due to Jijabai, mother of Ch.Shivaji,reconverted to Hinduism.Sometime in 1665, Shivaji had reduced Phaltan which was then a Adilshahi vassal state as per the Treaty of Purandar with the Mughals. Incidently Bajajis son Mahadji was given in marraige to Sakhubai, daughter of Ch. Shivaji. Mahadji served in the Mughal forces.
Naik Vangoji Nimbalkar III (1676-93)son(third).died without a issue.
Naik Janoji Nimbalkar (1693-1748)nephew.His step brother deposed him, but Ch.Shahu, grandson of Ch.Shivaji restored him back to the throne. He remained a vassal of the Maratha king of Satara.
Naik Mudhoji Nimbalkar III (1748-65).son. After his death his wife Sagunabai ruled, but after friction with Peshwa Madhavrao was deposed and a kin,Naik Sayajirao Nimbalkar(1667-74) was installed on the Phaltan seat. But after Peshwa Madhavraos death,Sagunabai adiopted a son Maloji and he was installed on the seat by Peshwa Sawai Madhavrao.
Naik Malojirao Nimbalkar III (1774-77)adopted son.
Naik Janrao Nimbalkar (1777-1827)adopted son.remained in the service of the Peshwas until their fall. His estate was then attached by the British and merged with Satara regency.
Naik Bajajirao Nimbalkar (1827-41)son. Once again took charge of the estate after accepting the overlordship of the British and being made to pay a sum of Rs 30,000 along with a yearly tribute of Rs 9600.
Naik Mudhoji Nimbalkar IV (1841-1916)brother.renovated temple of Jabreshwar and gave grants to many other temples.Established health services,irrigation and water supply systems  in the state.
Naik Malojirao Nimbalkar IV (1916-1978)son.renowned social reformer,abolished untouchability,purdah system,child marriages.Promoted industry by setting up a sugar factory, irrigation projects,education etc.Merged state with Indian union.
Naik Pratapsinh Nimbalkar(1978-2004)son.died in 2004.
Naik Ramraje Nimbalkar (2004+)son.advocate/educationist/politician/minister .


    Philosophical Essence
    Know Thyself, that is the most celebrated philosophical essence of human race. Man, whose comprehension has expanded from the minuscule atomic world to the collossum deatils of the galactic bodies and who has exerted great influence upon nature through the mastering of engineering is now facing the more important question of how much had we really learnt about our own self or how much self-control we could exert upon ourselves. In answering this we come close to Sufism which is an applied philosophy in the way to realize and communicate with the core driving force of our very existence.
    Man is made by God in the style of all the other living things making him a slave to his own instinct and tendency. However, he has not also been spared with the potential of overcoming this trend and tendency. He has been blessed with the power to win the incompliable hurdles of our nature. More often than not, we are misled by the tricky six senses playing within us. We have inside us the unbreakable link between fear and inertia. Sufism holds in our hand and takes us away free from the fruitless burden of these senses, namely, sex, pride and fear. It then allows us to settle down with the pure soul living dormant deep down in our heart.
    God exists in every soul that he has laid down to roam upon the earth. Man can attain the humane fullfilment by awakening the omnipotent Master in himself through focusing upon and purifying one’s soul. Because Creator is only the other name of that absolute soul.
    As goes in the Hadith-e-Kudsi: I was always there hiding from your eyes, I desired to express myself and I created All and expressed myself. Creator expresses himself through his Creation. We can find him in the non-living things in the qualitative form and in human beings as the living soul. He who has been successful in waking up that dormant soul is considered an `Olee’ i.e. a friend of God. What he says and what does becomes the saying and the doing of God. He is the possesor of all his attributes. We are advised merely to follow him. Because He is the one who has been trully blessed.
    To ensure this self-purification and self-awakening we need an effective Guru or Murshid or Peer and attain self-knowledge, self-purification and self-satisfaction through sitting for a Morakaba or Meditation under his able guidance. The Prophet himself set an example before us by doing the same for fifteen years at the Cave of Hera.
    Sufism is an effective philsophy. It leads us to a peaceful and pragmatic life on this very dusty earth.

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